Monday, 12 June 2017

Unit 37: Presentation Techniques for Broadcasting - Understand Presentation Roles and Techniques

Within this blog I will be exploring the history and development of presentation styles, discussing how the presenters and the way in which they present content has changed over time.
I will be discussing examples from a variety of differing decades meaning I should cover a strong range of content and should be able to see clearly when the changes in presenting styles begin to occur. 

Pathé News (Otherwise known as British Pathé)
Pathé News was founded by Charles Pathé and began in France in 1908, later established in the UK in 1910. 
There were major differences in these first productions which have now completely changed in both future shows and within the later years of Pathé News itself.
First and foremost the frequency and duration of the content being released; the newsreels were released biweekly and would only be four minutes in length. 
Comparing that to modern day news productions released that seems too short in frequency as the news in current day can be accessed anytime through social media, online apps and platforms such as YouTube.
These sources can all feature presented clips or written articles twenty four hours a day relating to any country, often reporting on news within hour(s) of it occurring. 
As well as this the news is presented on television by a large number of different channels with a variety of shows/presenters across the day. 
Using BBC One as an example (including any production that is displayed with the 'News' category), this is a schedule of times the news is shown on a day and its duration;
- HARDtalk (00:40-01:00)  = 20 minutes 
- Newsday (01:00-01:30)  = 30 minutes
- BBC News (02:00-02:30) = 30 minutes
- HARDtalk (02:30-03:00) = 30 minutes
- BBC News (03:00-03:30) = 30 minutes
- The Travel Show (03:30-04:00) = 30 minutes
- BBC News (04:00-04:30) = 30 minutes
- HARDtalk (04:30-05:00) = 30 minutes
- BBC News (05:00-05:30) = 30 minutes
- World Business Report (05:30-05:45) = 15 minutes
- BBC News (05:45-06:00)  = 15 minutes
- Breakfast (06:00-09:15) = 3 hours 15 minutes
- BBC News at One (13:00-13:30) = 30 minutes
- Look North (13:30-13:45) = 15 minutes
- BBC News at Six (18:00-18:30) = 30 minutes
- Look North (18:30-18:55) = 25 minutes
- Party Election Broadcast (18:55-19:00) = 5 minutes
- The One Show (19:00-19:30) = 30 minutes
- BBC News at Ten (22:00-22:30) = 30 minutes
- Look North (22:30-22:45) = 15 minutes
That is twenty different slots a day, equating to 665 minutes a day (11.8 hours) on the main BBC One channel. 
Despite having a large section of this channel dedicated to the news, BBC also has 'BBC News' which is a channel dedicated solely to news all day.
This shows the large change in the length of the productions and the amount of times new content is released. 
Another difference that has occurred is the platform of which the news is featured.
In the early days of Pathé News it was shown in cinemas (as it outdated TV by some years) whereas with other future news productions they are usually found primarily on television amongst other platforms. 
Finally another factor which only changed after 1928, was that the Pathé News was completely silent; any information that could not be portrayed to audiences through the visuals was simply written in text form. 
This means there was no presenters featured in any of the original content. 
Although no standards were set at the time and these strides in broadcasting were revolutionary, when looking back at the content it can prove to be dull and not engaging as it lacks the presenters explaining the visuals occurring and is instead silent.

As Pathé News began to advance as we continued into the 1930's, the newsreels would feature voice-over discussing what was going on within the clips being featured.
These voice-overs would be delivered very sternly and focused, not incorporating any personality or specific style to the presenter themselves, and instead was simply narrating the content of the clip. 
This meant there were no specifically well known presenters and certainly none which would be recognised for their appearance, personality or any other defining characteristic than their voice.
An example of a clip featuring voice-over as described above is a report on the Hindenburg disaster from 1937.

As well as making changes to and developing the presenting style of Pathé News, the content also began to develop and expand into different topics of news individually covering subjects such as; entertainment, sport, women's issues and culture through a variety of different shows.
Although developments continued and Pathé News expanded into television productions, they were unable to continue to compete with the rise of television and the cinema reels stopped being produced in 1970.  

Newsround (Otherwise known as John Craven's News Round)
Newsround began in 1972 and continues to broadcast to this day, it is a television news show aimed specifically at children and was one of the world's first. It was presented by John Craven from it's premiere in 1972 until his departure in 1989.
Unlike Pathé News productions, the presenter was seen on camera and spoke about the stories prior to the corresponding visuals beginning.
His tone of voice changed depending on the topic of the conversation, however much of it still seemed monotone and dull in comparison to modern day Newsround.  
The content was also very different as it took into account the audience and censorship, unlike Pathé News which would simply portray events exactly as they happened with actual deaths being shown.
The presenting reflected this also as he spoke about events that would interest children, including music and entertainment such as the starting of Channel 4.
In the clip below, during one segment, John Craven speaks about the pop group Musical Youth.
He talks about how "Now the boys will have to settle down to some ordinary school work", the tone and the way in which it is worded seems a lot less formal, again acknowledging the audience of the show.
Although John Craven is not really showing much of his own personality, he became a staple of the show and was recognized and beloved by the viewing public, paving the way for presenters that we know and love today.
As time went on and Newsround continued to develop and advance, presenters became much more personal and exciting - Talking with genuine interest in the topics and giving much more enthusiasm that past presenters.
The audience once again is taken much more into consideration, the stories are filtered further in order to avoid frightening/upsetting/confusing children and the spoken language has become much less formal and more personal.
In the clip below, Ayshah Tull speaks about the latest Academy Awards stating that they have "Got all the gossip from the Oscars that you need to tell your friends on the playground"

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